Jordània, dia 7: visita a Amman i Jarash ( 3 de gener de 2018) (VII)


Els ammonites a la Bíblia
Segons el Gènesi, els ammonites són els descendents de Benammí (també conegut com a Ammí o Ammon), un dels fills de Lot, nebot d'Abraham, nascut d'una relació incestuosa amb la seva pròpia filla petita. El Gènesi els considera parents propers dels israelites (descendents de Jacob), dels edomites (descendents d'Esaú) i encara més dels moabites (descendents de Moab). La tribu dels ammonites va exterminar els zamzunminis (zuzim o zamzummim) i es va establir als seus territoris, al nord de Moab i a l'est del riu Jordà.
Segons l'Èxode, els israelites van trobar a la seva arribada a Canaan el Regne de Sihon com a dominador de Gilead, el país a l'est del riu Jordà, ja que aquest havia expulsat els ammonites del seu territori. L'exèrcit hebreu, comandat per Josuè, va demanar creuar el seu territori, però no els hi fou permès; aleshores, foren exclosos de la Congregació del senyor durant deu generacions i van veure com els nouvinguts van ocupar les seves terres. Tres-cents anys després, un rei ammonita va envair les terres d'Israel fins que fou derrotat pel jutge d'IsraelJeftè.
En temps del rei David, el rei ammonita Nahaix va pactar una aliança amb Israel. Però quan va morir, el fill i successor, Hanum, va malfiar-se dels jueus i es va trencar l'acord. Aleshores, va declarar la guerra a David i, juntament amb els siris, van atacar Israel. La guerra va durar prop d'un any, fins que l'exèrcit israelita del general Joab va arrasar Rabà, la capital ammonita.”
Amb tot, entrem un moment al museu. El guia ens conta que van descobrir 33 estàtues de diferent mida, fetes de guix amb els ulls pintats de negre. Aquestes estàtues, però, s’havien de coure a 900ºC i encara a dia d’avui es desconeix com entre el 6000 i 8000aC es va aconseguir fer.
De fet, a Jericó, datada d’aproximadament el 6000aC, també s’hi van trobar estàtues semblants.
Dins del museu hi ha restes de moltes èpoques, però sobretot en destaca la joia de la corona que no és altre que les estàtues d’Ayn Gazhal, que tal i com es conta a viquipèdia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%27Ain_Ghazal_Statues ):” A number of monumental lime plaster and reed statues dated to the Pre-pottery Neolithic B period have been discovered in Jordan, at the site of Ayn Ghazal. A total of 15 statues and 15 busts were discovered in 1983 and 1985 in two underground caches, created about 200 years apart.
Dating to between the mid-7th millennium BC and the mid-8th millennium BC,[  the statues are among the earliest large-scale representations of the human form, and are regarded to be one of the most remarkable specimens of prehistoric art from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period. They are kept in the Jordan Museum in Amman.
Description
The figures are of two types, full statues and busts. Some of the busts are two-headed. Great effort was put into modelling the heads, with wide-open eyes and bitumen-outlined irises. The statues represent men, women and children; women are recognizable by features resembling breasts and slightly enlarged bellies, but neither male nor female sexual characteristics are emphasized, and none of the statues have genitals, the only part of the statue fashioned with any amount of detail being the faces.
The statues were formed by modelling moist plaster from limestone on a reed core using plants that grew along the banks of the Zarqa River. The reed decayed over the millennia, leaving plaster shells with a hollow interior. Lime plaster is formed by heating limestone to temperatures between 600 and 900 degrees celsius; the product, hydrated lime is then combined with water to make a dough, which was then modelled. Plaster becomes a water-resistant material when it dries and hardens. Heads, torsos and legs were formed from separate bundles of reeds which were then assembled and covered in plaster. The irises were outlined with bitumen and the heads were covered with some sort of wig.
They are comparatively tall, but not human-sized, the tallest statues having a height of close to 1 m. They are disproportionately flat, about 10 cm in thickness. They were nevertheless designed to stand up, probably anchored to the floor in enclosed areas and intended to be seen only from the front. The way the statues were made would not have permitted them to last long. And since they were buried in pristine condition it is possible that they were never on display for any extended period of time, but rather produced for the purpose of intentional burial.
Discovery and conservation
The site of Ayn Ghazal was discovered in 1974 by developers who were building a highway connecting Amman to the city of Zarqa. Excavation began in 1982. The site was inhabited during ca. 7250–5000 BC. In its prime era, during the first half of the 7th millennium BC, the settlement extended over 10–15 hectares (25–37 ac) and was inhabited by ca. 3000 people.
The statues were discovered in 1983. While examining a cross section of earth in a path carved out by a bulldozer, archaeologists came across the edge of a large pit 2.5 meters (8 ft) under the surface containing plaster statues. Excavation led by Gary O. Rollefson took place in 1984/5, with a second set of excavation under the direction of Rollefson and Zeidan Kafafi during 1993–1996.
A total of 15 statues and 15 busts were found in two caches, which were separated by nearly 200 years. Because they were carefully deposited in pits dug into the floors of abandoned houses, they are remarkably well-preserved.Remains of similar statues found at Jericho and Nahal Hemarhave survived only in fragmentary state.
The pit where the statues were found was carefully dug around, and the contents were placed in a wooden box filled with polyurethane foam for protection during shipping. The statues are made of plaster, which is fragile especially after being buried for so long. The first set of statues discovered at the site was sent to the Royal Archaeological Institute in Great Britain, while the second set, found a few years later, were sent to the Smithsonian Institution in New York for restoration work. The statues were returned to Jordan after their conservation and can be seen in the Jordan Museum.
Part of the find was on loan in the British Museum in 2013. One specimen was still being restored in Britain as of 2012. ”
Dins del museu hi passaria molta estona contemplant tot el que hi ha de totes les èpoques, però no tenim gaire temps. Em crida l’atenció, però, alguns cranis als quals sembla que se’ls havia practicat alguna mena de cirugia primitiva, i en alguns, més d’una vegada i tot.
Sortint, tenim temps de poder contemplar una petita part del que queda d’una estàtua d’Hèrcules, que es creu que feia 13m d’alt i que és una mà. Sembla que hi hagué un terratrèmol que va destruir-la... Allí també hi havia un temple, el temple d’Hèrcules, construït entre el 162-166 aC. Sobre aquest temple, del qual encara se’n conserven alguns vestigis, es conta el següent (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_of_Hercules_(Amman) ):” Temple of Hercules is a historic site in the Amman Citadel in AmmanJordan. It was built in the same period as the Roman amphitheater below between (162-166) AD. It is thought to be the most significant Roman structure in the Amman Citadel, according to an inscription the temple was built when Geminius Marcianus was governor of the Province of Arabia (AD 162-166).
The temple is about 30 meters long by 24 meters wide and additional with an outer sanctum of 121 meters by 72 meters.  The portico has 6 columns about 10 meters tall. Archaeologists believe that since there are no remains of additional columns the temple was probably not finished, and the marble used to build the Byzantine Church nearby.
The site also contains a hand carved out of stones resembling the hand of Hercules. The statue is estimated to have been over 12 meters tall, and probably destroyed in an earthquake. All that remains are three fingers and an elbow. 
(Continuarà)
(La fotografia és d'una de les portes d'entrada de Jarash)


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